衰老是自然的生理过程。一项新研究显示,这个过程虽然持续进行,但并非匀速发展,这便是人们常说的感觉自己“一下子变老了”。

Aging is a natural physiological process. A new study shows that the process continues, but not at a constant rate of development, which is often referred to as the feeling of \"getting older all of a sudden.\"

近日,发表在《自然医学》杂志上的新研究显示,人体衰老有3个变速档,分别是34岁、60岁和78岁。美国斯坦福大学阿尔茨海默症研究中心科研人员分析了4263名18~95岁受试者的血浆数据,测定约3000种不同蛋白质的水平后发现,蛋白质水平总体保持相对稳定,但在上述三个年龄,多种蛋白质的读数发生了很大变化。研究人员解释,这些蛋白质水平的变化不仅是人体衰老的特征,更可能是衰老的原因。“随着研究不断深入,我们有望通过血液测试,以分子水平衡量人的衰老程度。”领导这项研究的托尼·维斯-科雷教授表示:“我们对年龄了解得越多,能干预的就越多。未来,我们有可能确切知道什么饮食和行为习惯有助延寿,从而帮助人们避免罹患各种疾病。”结合这项研究,《生命时报》邀请多位专家详细解读上述每个年龄点需要重点关注的健康问题。

A new study published in the journal Nature Medicine recently showed that there are three gears for aging:34,60 and 78. Researchers at the Alzheimer's Research Center at Stanford University, who analyzed plasma data from 4,263 subjects aged 18 to 95, measured levels of about 3,000 different proteins and found that protein levels remained relatively stable overall, but the readings of multiple proteins changed significantly at the three ages. The researchers explain that these changes in protein levels are not only characteristic of human aging, but are more likely to be the cause of it. \"As research progresses, we hope to pass blood tests to measure how old people are at the molecular level.\" Professor Tony Weiss-Core, who led the study, said:\" The more we know about age, the more we can intervene. In the future, it is possible to know exactly what diet and behavioral habits are helping to prolong life and thus help people avoid diseases. In conjunction with the study, the times invited experts to read in detail the health issues that need to be focused on at each of these age points.

人体衰老和疾病是细胞损伤或死亡引起的整体变化。早在1925年,美国著名生物学家威尔逊就提出:“一切生命的关键问题都要到细胞中去寻找。”北京大学公共卫生学院社会医学与健康教育系教授钮文异告诉记者,青年人虽然正处于年富力强、身心相对成熟稳定的阶段,但人体内细胞数和细胞内的水分开始不断减少,这是机体衰老的第一个转折点。北京老年医院中医科原主任刘德泉提到,34岁左右的人群大多处于家庭负担重、工作压力大、人际关系复杂的状态,很大程度上影响了身心健康,这些外部因素与研究中提到的体内蛋白质读数骤变互为因果关系。

Human aging and disease are the overall changes caused by cell damage or death. Back in 1925, well-known american biologist wilson proposed:\" all vital questions of life must be found in cells.\" Niu Wenyi, a professor in the Department of Social Medicine and Health Education at Peking University's School of Public Health, told reporters that although young people are in the stage of being young and relatively mature and stable, the number of cells in the body and the water in the cells are beginning to decrease, which is the first turning point for the body to age. Liu dequan, former director of chinese medicine at the beijing geriatric hospital, said that most of the people around the age of 34 were in a state of heavy family burden, high work pressure and complex interpersonal relationships, which greatly affected physical and mental health.

专家认为,30多岁的人应重点关注神经系统和肌肉骨骼的健康状况。30岁后,大脑血液循环减慢,血流量减少,脑内神经细胞数量逐步减少,从而影响记忆力、协调性及大脑功能。人体肌肉量在25~30岁达到峰值,而后随年龄增长逐渐降低,进而影响机体代谢速率,35岁左右,骨质开始流失。30岁开始,心脏的心室壁和心瓣膜会逐渐增厚,心脏传导系统开始衰老。与此同时,肺活量也开始缓慢下降。中国老年学和老年医学学会老年心理分会秘书长杨萍告诉记者,34岁左右的人群,因压力、责任感的增加容易导致焦虑、抑郁等心理问题。

Experts believe people in their 30s should focus on the health of the nervous system and musculoskeletal muscles. After the age of 30, the blood circulation of the brain slows down, the blood flow decreases, and the number of nerve cells in the brain gradually decreases, thus affecting memory, coordination and brain function. The body's muscle mass peaked at 25 to 30 years of age, and then gradually decreased with age, and then affected the metabolic rate, about 35 years of age, bone loss began. At the age of 30, the heart's ventricular walls and valves will gradually thicken, and the heart's conduction system will begin to age. Meanwhile, lung capacity is beginning to slow down. Yang Ping, secretary-general of the Geriatric Psychology Branch of the Chinese Geriatrics and Geriatrics Society, told reporters that people around the age of 34 are prone to psychological problems such as anxiety and depression due to increased stress and increased sense of responsibility.

刘德泉提醒,随着人们生活方式和饮食习惯的改变,一些老年慢性病,如高血压、糖尿病、动脉硬化等,越来越多发生于中青年人群,同时,长期疲劳的状态也增加了他们患慢性疲劳综合征、肥胖症的风险。

Liu Dequan reminds that with the change of people's lifestyle and eating habits, some elderly chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis and so on, more and more occur in the young and middle-aged people, at the same time, the state of long-term fatigue also increases their risk of chronic fatigue syndrome, obesity.

刘德泉表示,这个年龄段应重点关注循环、消化及免疫系统。60岁左右,心脏每搏输出量(指一次心搏,一侧心室射出的血量)较20岁时减少30%~40%,心脏传导系统持续衰老,易导致机体供血不足和代偿失调等问题。消化方面,60岁左右,口腔、食道、胃肠功能逐渐衰退,胰腺由于脂质浸润及腺体细胞的萎缩,导致胰蛋白酶、脂肪酶等消化酶分泌减少和活性减退,消化功能下降,胃肠道疾病风险随之增大。内分泌系统衰老主要体现在各种激素水平及靶器官对它的敏感性上。《衰老》杂志发表的一项历时十年的研究显示,随着年龄增长,人体内T淋巴细胞总数不断减少,免疫功能随之降低,更容易受到细菌、病毒的侵袭。

Mr liu said this age group should focus on circulation, digestion and the immune system. Around 60 years of age, the cardiac output per stroke (refers to one heart beat, one side of the ventricular ejection volume) is 30% to 40% less than 20 years of age, the heart conduction system continues to aging, easy to lead to insufficient blood supply and compensatory disorders and other problems. Digestive aspect, about 60 years old, oral cavity, esophagus, gastrointestinal function gradually decline, pancreas due to lipid infiltration and atrophy of gland cells, resulting in trypsin, lipase and other digestive enzyme secretion and decreased activity, digestive function decreased, gastrointestinal disease risk increased. The aging of endocrine system is mainly reflected in the levels of various hormones and the sensitivity of target organs to it. A 10-year study published in the journal Aging shows that the total number of T lymphocytes in the human body decreases with age, and the immune function decreases, making it more vulnerable to bacteria and viruses.

在心理上,60岁左右的人群由于身体机能逐渐衰退和退休造成的社会职能改变,很容易产生心理落差,也会加速衰老。杨萍还提到,超过半数的60岁以上人群都有对自身健康的担忧和不安全感,从而加重他们的心理负担,更易导致情绪不稳、焦虑、抑郁等心理问题。

Psychologically, people around the age of 60 are prone to psychological differences and accelerated aging due to a gradual decline in physical function and changes in social functions caused by retirement. Yang also mentioned that more than half of people over the age of 60 have concerns and insecurity about their own health, thus increasing their psychological burden, and more likely to lead to emotional instability, anxiety, depression and other psychological problems.

78岁左右,人体各项机能都进入快速衰老阶段,神经、泌尿、呼吸、循环等各系统,以及认知和心理都出现明显变化。

Around the age of 78, the body's various functions have entered a rapid aging stage, nerve, urinary, respiratory, circulation and other systems, as well as cognitive and psychological changes.

神经系统方面,老年人脑细胞数量及突触连接减少,脑血流量减小,导致记忆力下降、易疲劳、对外界反应迟钝等问题。泌尿系统方面,肾动脉硬化、肾血流量减小,会导致肾功能减退。老年男性常伴有前列腺增生,有尿频、尿急、尿不尽感;老年女性因盆底括约肌松弛,多会出现尿失禁症状。呼吸系统方面,老年人会出现呼吸肌力量减退、气管钙化等问题,导致气道阻力增加、肺通气及肺换气功能减退。随着纤毛运动减弱,老年人的排痰能力也逐渐下降。循环系统方面,78岁左右人群心室壁增厚,外周动脉硬化,更容易引起脏器缺血。

In the nervous system, the number of brain cells and synaptic connections in the elderly decreased, and the blood flow of the brain decreased, resulting in memory loss, fatigue, slow response to external problems. Urinary system, renal arteriosclerosis, renal blood flow decreased, will lead to renal dysfunction. Elderly men are often accompanied by prostatic hyperplasia, frequent urination, urinal urgency, urine sensation; elderly women due to pelvic floor sphincter relaxation, more will appear urinary incontinence symptoms. respiratory system, the elderly will have respiratory muscle strength decline, trachea calcification and other problems, resulting in increased airway resistance, lung ventilation and pulmonary ventilation dysfunction. As the cilia motility weakens, the ability of the elderly to discharge sputum gradually decreases. circulatory system, the 78-year-old people around the thickening of the ventricular wall, peripheral arteriosclerosis, more likely to cause organ ischemia.

这个阶段的老人大脑功能衰退,认知功能退化非常明显。2018年,一项在美国人口学会年会上公布的研究表明,大脑衰老从73岁起会有4年左右部分认知障碍期,随后的一年半到两年内就可能出现阿尔茨海默症或类似的认知障碍疾病。心理层面上,老年人常表现出以自我为中心、保守、多疑、急躁、自卑等性格障碍及空巢综合征等心理问题。

This stage of the elderly brain function decline, cognitive degeneration is very obvious. In 2018, a study presented at the annual meeting of the American Population Society showed that brain aging had a partial cognitive impairment period of about four years from the age of 73, and that Alzheimer's or similar cognitive impairment could occur within a year and a half to two years thereafter. On the psychological level, the elderly often show self-centered, conservative, paranoid, impatient, inferiority complex and other psychological problems such as empty nest syndrome.

虽然衰老是不可逆的过程,但我们可以尽量延缓它的进程。杨萍表示,正视衰老是延缓衰老的关键,保持乐观心态尤其重要,人们应及时摆脱对机体衰老的恐惧心理和急躁易怒、孤独抑郁等不良情绪。

Although aging is an irreversible process, we can try to delay its progress. Yang Ping said that facing up to aging is the key to delaying aging, and it is especially important to maintain an optimistic attitude, people should get rid of the fear of aging and irritable, lonely depression and other bad emotions in time.

专家们一致认为,不论处于哪个年龄阶段,保持良好生活方式和饮食习惯都十分重要。应注意平衡膳食、结构多样、谷类为主,多吃蔬果、奶类、大豆,适量吃鱼、禽、蛋、瘦肉,少盐少油。生活方式上,注意劳逸结合、及时舒缓压力、戒烟限酒并保证充足睡眠,注意吃动平衡,保持健康体重。

Experts agree that it is important to maintain a good lifestyle and eating habits regardless of age. Should pay attention to balanced diet, diverse structure, mainly cereals, eat more fruits and vegetables, milk, soybeans, eat fish, poultry, eggs, lean meat, less salt and less oil. Lifestyle, pay attention to the combination of work and rest, timely relief of stress, quit smoking and alcohol limit and ensure adequate sleep, pay attention to eat balance, maintain a healthy weight.

坚持适量运动对延缓衰老有积极作用。需要注意的是,老年人身体素质全面下降,锻炼一定要循序渐进,应选择运动时间不过长、强度不太大的全身性体育活动,如散步、快走、太极拳等。另外,不管哪个人群一定要坚持定期体检。

Sticking to moderate exercise has a positive effect on delaying aging. It should be noted that the physical quality of the elderly is fully reduced, exercise must be gradual, should choose sports time is not too long, the intensity of the whole body sports activities, such as walking, fast walking, Taijiquan and so on. In addition, no matter which crowd must insist on regular physical examination.

最后,刘德泉提醒,家人对老年人身体和精神健康的关爱对他们的健康长寿有非常正面的作用。面对60岁左右人群,家人要协助他们安排好退休生活,鼓励他们培养积极兴趣爱好,做到老有所乐,老有所为。78岁左右人群大多会有子女远离后的空巢感,加上他们常会过度关注自己的健康,家人此时更要多关心照顾、与他们沟通。▲(记者江越)

Finally, Liu Dequan reminded that the family's care for the physical and mental health of the elderly has a very positive effect on their health and longevity. In the face of people in their 60s, family members should help them arrange their retirement, encourage them to develop positive interests and hobbies, and make sure that they are old and happy. Most people around the age of 78 will have children away from the empty nest feeling, plus they will often pay too much attention to their own health, the family should be more concerned about care and communication with them at this time. (Reporter: Jiang Yue)

看高血压是咋一步步弄坏心脏的5种方法降血压动脉血管内压力过高,心脏排血的阻力就会增大,久而久之会逐渐引起心室壁肥厚。之后,其运动会变的呆滞、不灵活、不协调,对心脏泵血功能造成影响,严重时可因心脏舒张能力变差导致心衰。

See hypertension is how step by step damage to the heart of the five ways to lower blood pressure arterial pressure is too high, the resistance to cardiac blood excretion will increase, over time will gradually cause hypertrophy of the ventricular wall. Later, its exercise will become dull, inflexible, uncoordinated, to the heart pump blood function, severe may be due to the heart diastolic ability to lead to heart failure.

止打嗝、防老花、解腰痛这些小窍门有大用掐攒竹止打嗝。攒竹穴在面部,眉毛内侧眉头凹陷处。取坐位,双手放于桌上,双手拇指食指指尖立起,低头闭目,用力掐攒竹穴,由于指尖受力面小,局部很容易就会有酸胀感。每次坚持10秒钟,可轻轻放松一下,反复掐至少5次。

Stop hiccups, prevent old age, relieve waist pain these tips have big use to save bamboo to stop hiccups. Zanzhu point in the face, eyebrow inside the brow depression. Take the sitting position, hands on the table, hands thumb food finger pointed up, bow closed eyes, hard to save bamboo hole, because the fingertips force small, local will easily have a feeling of acid expansion. Hold on for 10 seconds each time, can gently relax, repeatedly pinch at least 5 times.

冬季热水泡脚有4大好处,但这5类人需谨慎泡脚是中医的一种养生保健方法,具有加快血液循环、刺激穴位、解乏散寒之功效,同时还能提高人体免疫力,帮助抵御各种疾病。

Winter hot water foot bubble has four major benefits, but these five categories of people need to be careful foot bubble is a health care method of traditional Chinese medicine, with the ability to speed up blood circulation, stimulate acupoints, relieve cold, but also improve human immunity, help resist various diseases.


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