元素周期表的最后一列是一类“扫兴”的元素,它们被统称为惰性气体。大多数元素的原子会和其他原子共享电子,形成化学键,从而构成分子,而惰性气体原子的最外层的电子本身已经达到“满”的状态,因此它们自身就极其稳定,很少发生化学反应,很难与其他原子结合形成分子。

The last column of the periodic table is a class of \"dampened\" elements that are collectively referred to as inert gases. The atoms of most elements share electrons with other atoms, forming chemical bonds that make up the molecules, while the outermost electrons of the inert gas atoms themselves have reached a \"full\" state, so that they themselves are extremely stable, have little chemical reaction and are difficult to combine with other atoms to form molecules.

  在地球上,还没有发现天然形成的惰性气体化合物。从上个世纪开始,科学家就在实验室中尝试将惰性气体的原子合成分子。1925年,科学家在实验室中设法让氦(He)与氢离子(H?)共享一个电子,合成了第一个氦合氢离子(HeH?)。天文学家将氦合氢离子称为“分子”,但由于它并不是电中性的,化学家更愿意称之为“分子离子”。

On earth, no naturally occurring inert gas compounds have been found. Since the last century, scientists have tried to synthesize molecules of atoms in inert gases in the laboratory. In 1925, scientists managed to get helium (He) and hydrogen ions (H? ) shared an electron and synthesized the first helium-hydrogen ion (HeH? )。 Astronomers call helium-hydrogen ions "molecules," but because they are not electrically neutral, chemists prefer to call them" molecular ions."

  1962年,化学家尼尔·巴特利特(NeilBartlett)诱导氙(Xe)、氟和铂结合,得到了一个芥黄色的化合物——六氟合铂酸氙,这是一个电中性分子,也是第一个电中性的惰性气体化合物分子。

In 1962, chemist Neil Bartlett induced a combination of xenon (Xe), fluorine and platinum to produce a mustard-yellow compound, xenon hexafluoroplatinum, an electrically neutral molecule and the first electrically neutral inert gas compound.

  但在宇宙中,情况可能大不一样。太空是一个寻找惰性气体化合物分子的绝佳场所。惰性气体元素在宇宙中十分丰富。氦是仅次于氢的宇宙中第二丰富的元素,氖(Ne)的丰度大约排在第五或第六名。在星际空间中,温度和密度时常达到极端情况,惰性气体在这种条件下可能会发生与在地球上不一样的反应,形成分子就是其中之一。

But in the universe, things can be very different. Space is a great place to find molecules of inert gas compounds. The inert gas elements are abundant in the universe. helium is the second-richest element in the universe after hydrogen, with neon (ne) abundance roughly ranked fifth or sixth. In interstellar space, temperatures and densities often reach extremes, and inert gases may react differently to Earth under such conditions, forming molecules as one of them.

  氩(Ar)是一种很容易被忽视的元素。事实上,在地球大气中,无论是体积比例还是质量比例,氩气的比例远高于经常被提起的二氧化碳,它是空气中比例第三高的气体,仅次于氮气和氧气。但以往似乎很少有科学家在搜寻一种包含氩元素的星际分子。当天体物理学家麦克·巴洛(MikeBarlow)领导的研究小组找到氩氢离子时,他也谦虚地表示,“这是一次意外的发现”。

Argon (ar) is an easily neglected element. in fact, in the earth ' s atmosphere, no matter the volume ratio or mass ratio, the ratio of argon is much higher than the often mentioned carbon dioxide, which is the third highest proportion of gas in the air, second only to nitrogen and oxygen. But in the past few scientists seem to be searching for an interstellar molecule that contains argon. When the team led by astrophysicist Mike Barlow found the argon hydrogen ions, he also modestly said," It was an unexpected discovery."

  ArH?的发现离不开赫歇尔空间天文台。它于2009年发射升空,是一个对远红外线和亚毫米波进行观测的天文台。赫歇尔空间天文台配备了超低温超流体氦制冷剂,这使得它能在不受自身温度干扰的情况下,观测到来自遥远的物体的远红外波长。由于许多分子吸收并发射远红外光,这一光谱范围非常适合寻找新的星际分子。由于制冷剂耗尽,赫歇尔于2013年结束了它的观测生涯,并让出了其优越的观测位置。但在它退役之前,它对星际氢化物的观测做出了巨大贡献。

Ar H? The discovery cannot be separated from the Herschel Space Observatory. Launched in 2009, it is an observatory that observes far infrared and submillimeter waves. The Herschel Space Observatory is equipped with ultra-low temperature superfluid helium refrigerant, which allows it to observe far-infrared wavelengths from distant objects without being disturbed by its own temperature. Because many molecules absorb and emit far-infrared light, this spectrum is well suited to finding new interstellar molecules. As the refrigerant ran out, Herschel ended its observation career in 2013 and gave up its superior observational location. But before it retired, it made a huge contribution to observations of interstellar hydride.

  在赫歇尔升空后的一年里,多组天文学家都开始注意到,星际空间中存在一些物质,会吸收波长485微米的远红外光,这一谱线之前从未观测到过。巴洛领导的小组也是其中之一。彼时,他们正在利用赫歇尔的数据研究蟹状星云。除了485微米的谱线,他们还注意到了另一个恰好是前者一半波长的谱线,这标志着一个由两个原子组成的分子。巴洛小组最终确认了ArH?的存在,并于2013年将这一发现发表在《科学》杂志上。

In the year since Herschel took off, several groups of astronomers have begun to notice that there is something in interstellar space that absorbs far-infrared light at a wavelength of 485 microns, a line that has never been observed before. Barlow's team is one of them. At the time, they were using Herschel's data to study the Crab Nebula. In addition to the line of 485 microns, they noticed another line that happened to be half the wavelength of the former, marking a molecule of two atoms. Barlow team finally confirmed ArH? and published the discovery in the journal Science in 2013.

  不少科学家“错过”了ArH?,是因为他们认为自己知道ArH?的波长。以往在实验室中创造出的ArH?包含Ar-40,这是是地球上最常见的氩的同位素,但在星际介质中,Ar-36的丰度要高得多,而在宇宙中发现的也恰恰是波长略有不同的36ArH?。

Many scientists "missed" ArH? Is it because they think they know ArH? The wavelength. previous arh created in the laboratory? contains ar-40, the most common isotope of argon on earth, but the abundance of ar-36 is much higher in interstellar media, and exactly 36 arh with slightly different wavelengths found in the universe? 。

  星际中的ArH?合成需要两个步骤。首先,宇宙射线让氩原子失去一个电子,形成氩离子(Ar?),随后Ar?再从氢分子那里“偷”来一个氢原子,从而形成ArH?。但氩氢离子十分脆弱,它的合成离不开氢分子,但过量氢分子的存在同样会破坏其稳定性。

Arh in the stars? the synthesis requires two steps. First, cosmic rays let the argon atom lose an electron and form an argon ion (ar? ), then Ar? And steal a hydrogen atom from a hydrogen molecule to form arh? However, argon hydrogen ions are so fragile that their synthesis cannot be separated from hydrogen molecules, but the presence of excess hydrogen molecules also undermines their stability.

  在ArH?被找到后,科学家仍在继续努力寻找一种“更简单”的惰性气体分子——HeH?。虽然这种分子很早以前就已经在实验室中被合成出来,在宇宙中确认它的存在更为重要,因为科学家认为,在宇宙大爆炸的10万年后,中性氦原子(He)与质子(实际上是带正电的氢离子,H?)会开始反应,形成宇宙中的第一批分子,也就是HeH?。这是宇宙演化的第一步。

In ArH? Once found, scientists are still struggling to find a \"simpler\" inert gas molecule, HeH? Although this molecule has long been synthesized in the laboratory, it is even more important to confirm its existence in the universe because scientists believe that after 100,000 years of the Big Bang, neutral helium atoms (He) and protons (actually positively charged hydrogen ions, H? ) will begin to react and form the first molecules in the universe, the HeH? .This is the first step in the evolution of the universe.

  在上世纪70年代时,理论学家提出,这种分子很有可能在行星状星云中形成,因为那里存在与早期宇宙相似的物理条件。经历40多年的搜索,年轻的行星状星云NGC7027终于给出了答案。2019年,罗尔夫·居斯滕(RolfGüsten)等人首次在NGC7027中探测到了HeH?,确认了这种物质存在于星际空间中,为这个漫长的“传说”画上了完美的句号。

In the 1970s, theorists suggested that such molecules were likely to form in planetary nebulae, where physical conditions were similar to those of the early universe. After more than 40 years of searching, the young planetary nebula NGC 7027 finally gives the answer. In 2019, the likes of Rolf Gusten first detected HeH in NGC 7027? confirmed the existence of this material in interstellar space and put a perfect end to this long \"legend \".

  宇宙中或许还有更多惰性气体分子等待着科学家去发现。例如,在太空中,氖原子的数量比氩原子还要多,因此应该存在氖氢离子。如果能发现它们的踪迹,氖氢离子的数量和它们存在的地方将可以进一步揭示星际介质的性质。

There may be more inert gas molecules in the universe waiting for scientists to discover. In space, for example, there are more neon atoms than argon, so there should be neon-hydrogen ions. If they are found, the number of neon-hydrogen ions and where they exist will further reveal the nature of the interstellar medium.

  另一方面,宇宙中的氪(Kr)和氙较为罕见,氪氢离子或氙氢离子存在的可能性应该比较低。但在广阔的宇宙中,温度和密度起伏差异巨大,也许在某一个遥远的星际云的角落,原子会结合形成更令人意想不到的奇异的分子。在未来,更为先进的技术将帮助我们朝着更遥远、更神秘的深空进行探索,或许还有更多惊喜等着我们。

Krypton (Kr) and xenon in the universe, on the other hand, are relatively rare, and the likelihood of the presence of krypton or xenon should be relatively low. But in the vast universe, the temperature and density vary so widely that, perhaps in the corner of a distant interstellar cloud, atoms combine to form more unexpectedly strange molecules. In the future, more sophisticated technology will help us explore the far, more mysterious depths of space, and perhaps more surprises await us.

  参考来源:https:///article/physical-world/2019/noble-gas-molecules-in-spacehttps:///doi/abs//annurev-astro-081915-023409?journalCode=astro

Reference source: https:\/\/article\/physical-world\/2019\/noble-gas-molecules-in-space https:\/\/doi\/abs\/annurev-astro-081915-023409? Journal Code = astro


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